2008秘鲁游记,10月17日(2)


从小破博物馆出来后就转身去了就在50米之外的Church Santo Domingo,按照LP Peru上的说法,如果在Cusco地区只参观一个地方的话就来Qoricancha地区,说到这里先来简单介绍一下这块地方的历史吧。Qoricancha就是刚刚参观完的小破博物馆和Church Santo Domingo所在的那一小块地方,这里曾经是印加王国最宏大神圣的神庙(太阳神庙)所在地。据记载西班牙殖民者刚刚打进去的时候在这里看到过有不少于4000个祭祀从事着各种活动。在整个神庙的花岗岩墙上以及地上铺着大约有700多块实心金箔,每块金箔的重量大约2公斤。此外还有很多实物一般大小的金、银制的玉米用来举行农业祭祀仪式用。更可观的是还有更多的实心金子做的神龛、驼羊、婴儿。在贪婪成性的殖民者进城的最初几个月内这里所有黄金就都被洗劫一空然后融化掉运回了西班牙。随后殖民者推倒了神庙的大部分建筑用那些被打磨的非常平整的石块开始自己的殖民建筑史。在原本神庙的原址上建起了这个Church Santo Domingo。在整个秘鲁能看到不少这样的教堂,下面的地基是印加石头、上面是教堂。

这个教堂的外墙有一段是原始的神庙外墙,而且是最有难度的一段,完全是一个用巨石整齐堆砌的完美弧形。内部有小部分未被摧毁房间的残垣断壁。最可恶的是整个Cusco城里最值得参观的景点却不包括在套票里面,知道套票之鸡肋了吧。

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教堂的外部,左面黑色的那片就是原本印加时代的弧形残墙

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此图已经缩小,点击察看原图。
仔细看一下这段墙

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在前往入口的路上看到几个穿着传统服装的妇女也在往同一方向走着

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进门之后就是已经被踩的非常光滑的石板路

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一段柱头,应该是西班牙人的作品

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印加人非常能够玩大石头,他们最擅长的就是打磨大石头来垒墙,接缝部分非常之紧密连刀片都插不进去。这种非常整齐的石块是神殿专用的建筑工艺。印加王的宫殿也无法相比。通常从废墟的残垣断壁中判断是否是神殿是相当容易的事情。

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幸存的印加石室

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此图已经缩小,点击察看原图。
路上遇到的几位妇女想来也在这个“寻根团”里吧,可能他们是特地穿了这样的传统服装来参观的。不知道这些印加的后裔此时此刻看着被殖民者毁掉的祖先最神圣的作品时心里是什么个想法。老婆那时候就在他们边上,同时还有一队白人旅游团也在那块。最匪夷所思的一幕是“寻根团”的男性们走过游客团中一位白人老头时居然一一上前握手,也不知道什么个想法和意思。

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此图已经缩小,点击察看原图。
这是一个根据后来的描述复原的太阳神庙的模型,不一定准确却也足以一窥当年的金碧辉煌。难怪惹得殖民者贪欲大发不可收拾了。到现在一切已成往事浮云,今日的游客们都只有在自己的想象中憧憬往昔不可一世的帝国如何瞬间土崩瓦解,感慨世事难料了。

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教堂内部的广场

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印加石墙

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里面有个画室,是不允许拍照的,进去的时候没有留意到这个禁止拍照的标志

教堂里面的一面墙上还挂着一片镀金金箔,名字叫做Mother Earth and Incas。是一位在西班牙殖民统治百年后作家描绘出来的殖民前印加时代的景象。
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这块金箔下面有图中每个元素含义的说明。

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ORCORARA, in Aymara literally — “herd of male animals”. According to the Aymara dictionary of L. Bertonio, “Imara Imara urcorara” means a constellation (Imara Imara — star). R Lehmann-Nitsche identifies it with “Three Maries” (three bright stars that that form the belt of Orión).

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URIRACOCHANPACH PACHAYACHAACHI (Wira-qochan Pachayachachi), in Quechua — “Teachers of the world”. The author of drawing comments that this element was a golden plate, round or oral, that symbolized the creator of the world Wiraqocha, who was the supreme deity of the Incas according to the Pachacuti Yamqui’s chronicle. The plate was made by the order of the first ruler Inca Manko Qapaq and renewed in the times of the fourth ruler Inca Mayta Qapaq. The penultimate ruler Inca Waskar ordered to replace it with an image of the sun, thus the original disk of Wiraqocha did not survive the Spanish Conquest.

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INTI, in Quechua — the sun, the second most important deity in the Inca pantheon after Wiraqocha. In may chronicles the sun is mentioned as mythical ancestor of the Inca royal dynasty (Garcilaso de la Vega and other authors)

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QUILLA (killa), in Quechua — the moon. According to the Inca mythology, the wife of the sun and the patroness of the queens (wives of the Incas).

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CHAZCA COYLLOR (ch’aska qoyllar), in Quechua — “curly star” or “big and bright star”; archachi ururi, in Aymara — “grandfather star”. The word “ch’aska” in colonial Quechua usually referred to the planet Venus of the dawn. Probably in the pre-Hispanic times the identity of Venus as both morning and evening star was known (R. Lehmann-Nitsche). The planet Venus in the Inca mythology, according to some chronicles, was a servant and companion of the sun.

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CHOQUE CHINCHAY (choqe chinchay), in Quechua — “golden feline”; apachi orori (apachi ururi), in Aymara — “grandmother star”. R. Lehmann-Nitsche interprets this element as the planet Venus of the evening. In the chronicles of Polo de Ondegardo, B. Cobo, J. de Acosta, A. de la Calancha and others, a planet, star or constellation of this name is mentioned as celestial patron of feline and bears. In the Quechua ethmoastronmony of our days the name Choqe Chinchay is applied to the stars of the tail of the Scorpio. (G. Urton)

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SUCSU – according to the colonial Quechua dictionary of Gonzalez Holguin, means “to be ill or weak”. R. Lehmann-Nitsche relates this group of stars with the Pleiades. Inca sometimes called the Pleiades “onqoy qoyllur” or “ill stars”, the time of their longest presence on the firmament is the summer of the European calendar (June – August), i.e., the dry season in the Andes. In this time of the year Inca celebrated a big ceremony dedicated to the Pleiades, because these stars were believed to take care the crops and protect them from the frost.

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POCOY (poqoy mita), in Quechua — “the seasons when the crops ripen”, a time of the clouds, fog and rain which corresponds to the winter of European calendar (December – February).

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YLLAPA, CHUQUE YLLA (illapa, choque illa) — “light, golden glare”. The names of the deity of thunderstorm and lighting, master of the rain; he was believed to be a man who poured on the earth the water from the Milky Way, the celestial river. (B. Cobo’s chronicle)

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CATACHILLAY (the etymology of the word remains unclear) – a star or constellation representing a female llama with her kid, according to the chronicles of Polo de Ondegardo, B. Colo, J. de Acosta, A. de la Calancha and others. T. Zuidema attributes this name at the same time to the Pleiadesand to Alpha and Beta Centauri. G. Urton comments that in the astronomic beliefs of the Quechua Indians of our days, the stars Alpha and Beta Centauri are called “llama ñawi” (eyes of the llama), while the silhouettes of the animal and its kid from a “dark constellation” black spot in the Milky Way.

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CHACANA (chakana), in Quechua — “bridge” or “crossbeam”, a link that joins two opposites side of smth. In the colonial Quechua dictionary of Gonzalez Holguin this name was used for the “Three Maries” (three stars of the Orion’s belt). G. Urton points that today this name still has the same meaning in some rural areas. It is also applied to other three bright stars of the constellation of Canis Major. Both Chankanas can be interpreted as the bridge that cross the Milky Way (celestial river). R Lehmann-Nitsche interprets the Chankanas as the Southern Cross, constellation of four stars, but it is possible that two of the four stars in the drawing (the ones that have two proper names) do not belong to the original image drawn by Pachacuti, but were added later by another hand.

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SARAMANCA and CORAMANCA (sara-manka and qora-manka), in Quechua — “pot of corn” and “pot of herbs and weed”. In the Quechua dictionary of Gonzalez Holguin the weed (ccora) appears in opposition to the corn in two proverbs (“The weed doesn’t let the corn grow as if it were watered with urine” and “The sin doesn’t let the virtue grow as the weed doesn’t let the crops grow”). “Sara” and “qora” express two opposite concepts: the positive and the negative.

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CUYCHI or TURO MANYA (k’uychi), in Quechua — “rainbow”. According to the Garcilaso’s chronicle, the rainbow was an emblem of the Inca dynasty. In the Pachacuti Yamqui’s text, the rainbow appeared at the moment when Manko Qapaq arrived at the Cusco valley and decided to settle there the capital city. A rainbow in the sky was considered to be a good omen, but it is also considered to cause certain diseases.

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MAMA PACHA or CAMAC PACHA (mama pacha or kamaq pacha), in Quechua — “mother earth” or “producing earth”, female deity, and symbol of fertility, which is venerated in the Andes to this day.

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PILCOMAYO (Pillku-mayu), in Quechua — “river of many colors”, probably an extinct name of some specific river (R Lehmann-Nitsche).

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MAMA COCHA (mama qocha), in Quechua — “mother sea”, female deity that provides fish and other foods. It can be interpreted as the Pacific ocean or the Titicaca lake.


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PUCYO (pukyu), in Quechua — “water spring”. Springs were venerated by the Incas as huacas or sacred places. (B. Cobo and other chronicles).

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CHEQUE CHINCHAY (choqe chinchay), in Quechua — “golden feline”. Probably the mythical creature whose symbol is the star or cancellation of the same name. Pachacuti in his chronicle mentions that “choqe chinchay, very bright animal of all colors” was brought to the birthday celebration of the prince Amaro Topa Inca. It “was said to be the lord of jaguars”. Possibly, this character was also master of hail.

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YMAYMANA ÑAORAYCUNAP ÑAUIN (imaymana ñawraykunap ñawin), in Quechua — “eyes of all kinds of things”, one of the most mysterious element of the picture. Possibly means germinated seeds. In this case, “the eyes” are related to Mama Pacha, fertile earth, which is represented directed over them.

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MAN and WOMAN – the two figures are dressed according to the Inca tradition and possibly represent the emperor (Sapa Inca) and his wife (Qoya).

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MALLQUI (mallki), in Quechua — “xtree” or “mummy of an ancestor”. Probably, in the Inca times some trees were venerated as ancestors. Pachacuti Yamqui tells that the first ruler Inca Manko Qapaq established a cult to his parents symbolized by two trees in Paqariq Tanpu, the mythical place of origin of the Incas.

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COLLCAMPATA (qolcan-pata), in Quechua – literally, “place of granaries” or “terrace of granaries”. This name was used for the lands in Cusco assigned to the temple of Qorikancha. Colca (qolca) in old and new Quechua means also “the constellation of the Pleiades”, which was considered to be the protector of the crops, thus an alternative reading could be: “a place dedicated to the Pleiades”.


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此图已经缩小,点击察看原图。
从教堂俯瞰前面的花园

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教堂走道上买画的小画廊,有些立体画描绘着印加时代的生活场景

参观结束之后就直奔火车站去了。要补充一点,前往Machu Picchu的比较可行的唯一方式就是坐火车(因为最后一段根本不通公路根本没长途汽车),要不就是从位于Cusco和Machu Picchu当中的Ollantaytambo开始传统的“Inca Trail”徒步40公里四天走进去。这个印加小路非常有名,据说秘鲁政府为了保护古迹,限制每天进入的人数包括导游挑夫游客全部在内,只有500人的名额所以需要提前几个月就预订。往返Machu Picchu的火车票一般都建议提前先预定好,当场买票是极端不可靠的方法。一路打听来回走了几个小弯路之后终于拐进了售票处。到那一看已经是大把人在排队了,没话说也领了号码加入等候的行列,在饿着肚子等了大约30分钟以后终于轮到了。按照原本的计划是打算在两天之后从Ollantaytambo出发前往Machu Picchu,但是不曾想到提前两天还是不够那天的票已经全部售完,不得已再往后推迟一天。这还不算糟更糟的是回程也很成问题,连续一个多星期直接回Cusco的车票无论贵贱都全部卖空了,回Ollantaytambo的相对便宜一点的backpacker class车票也都没有了,万幸回Ollantaytambo的VIP票还有,无奈多花钱吧。

为了到达Machu Picchu,费用是非常昂贵。火车票只是第一步而已。从Ollantaytambo到Aguas Calientes(Machu Picchu山脚下的那个城)的backpacker class车票单程US$31,从Aguas回Ollantaytambo的VIP class票US$43。其它的容后再述。

买好票拐到对面的小巷子里面找到一家小饭店吃了午餐Menú,估计这样的饭店一年之中都很少有几个游客到来,更不要说黄皮肤的游客了。

下午继续在套票上那些Cusco城内的博物馆参观,去了Museo de Arte Popular和Museo Histórico Regional,相比上午那个只能评价为两个更破的博物馆,一样的不允许拍照不说,展品更是乏陈可述。接着继续去套票的最后一个城内博物馆Meseo Municipal de Arte Contemporaneo,里面却正忙着到处搬东西展厅都关闭了。至此唯一还能期待的就是套票里包的晚上的歌舞表演了。

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